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What is the process of lithium-ion battery recycling plant?

2024-04-15 15:49:58


Lithium battery recycling includes the following four parts: 1 battery collection and pretreatment. 2 laddering utilization. 3 battery crushing and sorting. 4 wet metallurgical purification. 3 Battery crushing and sorting. 4 Wet metallurgical purification. Through these four processes, the main materials in lithium batteries will be recycled, reducing the impact on the environment. At the same time in the processing time to bring profits.

1 Recycling and pretreatment:


Firstly, waste lithium batteries need to be recovered from various sources, including personal electronic devices (such as cell phones and laptops), energy storage batteries or lithium batteries for electric vehicles. The batteries then need to be sorted and pre-processed. Batteries are usually categorized according to their shape and material. Battery shapes include cylindrical batteries, flexible pack batteries and square batteries. They have different shapes and sizes. On the other hand, the battery material can be categorized as ternary battery (3.7v) lithium iron phosphate battery (3.2v) lithium cobalt acid battery (3.6v).
Battery classification

After classified lithium batteries for safe storage and transportation, the battery will be discharged to eliminate the remaining energy. Prevent short circuit or thermal runaway during transportation. At the same time, it is necessary to pick out the broken batteries or batteries with bulging packs.

2 Echelon Use:

After a lithium battery is disassembled, the battery is manually or automatically broken down into smaller units. The goal is to remove the cables from the pack, which is used to assess the potential of the battery to be utilized for secondary purposes. Batteries with visible damage (e.g., swelling or broken casing) are sent directly to the shredding and sorting stage, as they are not suitable for further secondary use. The remaining batteries enter the capacity testing stage for detailed performance evaluation, including remaining capacity, voltage stability and internal resistance. According to common industry standards, the remaining capacity of power batteries should be no less than 65%, and that of energy storage plants should be no less than 55%.
battery echelon use
And batteries with capacity less than 50% of the rated capacity will be sent to the shredding and dismantling process. Batteries that meet the criteria for secondary utilization will be reclassified and reassembled. It can be used in scenarios with lower battery requirements, such as energy storage systems, low-power devices or emergency backup power, to ensure the effective utilization of battery resources and extend their use service life.

3 Crushing and Sorting:

Batteries that enter this section are assessed as end-of-life batteries. These batteries are crushed into smaller pieces in a safe manufacturing environment. They are then physically separated into different materials through screening, magnetic separation, gravity separation and other physical methods. After crushing, the small pieces of batteries are further pulverized using blades and milled to millimeter sizes. These materials are then sorted into battery powders by magnetic separation, screen separation and gravity separation methods. They are copper particles, aluminum particles, plastics (battery casing and seals) and black mass (lithium compounds). Through these crushing and separation processes, valuable materials from lithium-ion batteries are effectively recycled. Copper and aluminum can be sold directly to metal recycling companies, and black mass can be sold to metallurgical companies.
battery recycling equipment

 

4 Hydrometallurgical Processing:


Wet metallurgy mainly extracts valuable metals from Black mass through chemical methods, including dissolution, electrochemical processing and heat treatment to recover lithium, cobalt, nickel and other metals in Black mass.
First, the lithium in the battery material will be dissolved in a solvent, and the flux is made by mixing black powder with an acid to convert the solid lithium compounds into soluble lithium salts (such as lithium carbonate or lithium chloride). The purer lithium compound is then precipitated in solution. This process requires precise control of pH and temperature. Another method is solvent extraction, in which an organic solvent is used to selectively extract lithium ions from solution.
battery Hydrometallurgical Processing

The lithium compounds precipitated by the four processes contain impurities. It needs to be further purified and converted into a raw material that can be used to manufacture batteries. Precious metals and other materials in lithium-ion batteries are recycled and value is created.